Hi Need To Submit A 1000 Words Essay On The Topic Personality Theories And Asses

Hi, need to submit a 1000 words essay on the topic Personality Theories and Assessment Psychology.

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1) Psychoanalytic theory According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, defence mechanisms are the processes in which individuals reach solutions in order to reduce apprehension and anxiety (Frick, 1991). Repression relates to preventing unconscious thoughts from entering the conscious mind. An earlier experience of sexual molestation may be repressed by an individual in later life. Regression is the reversion on an earlier stage of development due to undesirable impulses. A teenager may resume bed wetting after experiencing stress or clinical depression. Displacement is the mechanism where individual conveys aggressive and sexual urges to a substitute object or person. An example is hitting a dog after a frustrating day at work. Sublimation is the diversion of negative inclinations usually sexual in nature to more positive actions like artistic work. One could become involved in cancer charity work after the death of a loved one due to cancer. Reaction formation implies that individuals substitute their unconscious negative thoughts and impulses with something directly opposite to the impulses. A religious person might harbor gay tendencies but deny this and become a fierce critic of homosexuality. Projection entails the displacement and attribution of undesirable thoughts to other people, or in rare cases to animals or inanimate objects. An employee may dislike the boss where projection occurs when the employee refuses to acknowledge this by saying, where after a mistake in the workplace that the boss dislikes the employee. Rationalization is the process involving forming opinions and explanations on the occurrence of certain things by not acknowledging the truth. After failing a driving tests many times, one may rationalize by that the price of gasoline is high, and cars are expensive to maintain. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory provides a robust framework for understanding the relevance of early behavioural patterns in influencing personality development. The theory assumes that defense mechanisms are critical in understanding the personality types of behaviour. Personality is the result of early childhood experiences, and subsequent defense mechanisms to deal with negative impulses. Despite the popularity of Freud’s theory there are various criticisms, firstly the theory ignores the impact of adaptation and interpersonal relations on personality. Thus, it only assumes that personality is mainly shaped at earlier stages of life. In addition, it lays much emphasis on early occurrences while ignores the inner destructive impulses. The theory cannot be tested empirically. hence, their scientific impact is also difficult to evaluate. B) Social cognitive theory Under external locus of control, people believe that their destiny depends on external factors beyond their immediate control. Thus, under this theory people are likely to avoid difficult tasks if they think that they may not achieve the desired results (Ayers, et al, 2007). An example would be where one may believe that failure in business is because the economy is in poor shape while ignoring their incompetence. Internal locus of control focuses on the ability to shape the destiny from the surroundings through actions and behavior. The level of motivation is thus high since there is a belief that they control their own destiny. Challenges are motivating factors among people in this group to readily accept failure or success from their part.

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