Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on post-cold war diplomacy and peace processes. The ideal state of freedom, security, and happiness among peoples and nations in the world perfectly outlines the concept of world peace, which has been extremely elusive to humankind since the dawn of a competitive civilization. Non-violence, understanding, and cooperation among countries as well as their leaders signify the essence of this universal aspiration, which for many is a seeming Utopian dream. But, in theory, and practice, peace is never impossible.1 While it is believed that it is already embedded in human nature to be violent and adversarial, it is also factually acceptable that war is only man-made and could be prevented through a firm resolve and humane freewill.
Immanuel Kant in his classical treatise entitled Perpetual Peace, upheld that the epitome of humanity only occurs when there is a total cessation of hostilities and not just a temporary suspension of conflicts.2 It should be noted, however, that Kant did not imply that there should be a total absence of disputes and conflicts before peace is attained. Theoretically, the stress was only placed on the term ‘hostilities’ and that it also implied the polite way of handling issues and settling differences.
There has been a wide-ranging scope of theories and conjectures about the idea of peace. Various interpretations were already offered and at times disputed. According to Kacowicz, there is a threefold typology of peace.3 First is precarious peace, which is the temporary absence of armed conflict between nations (some Arab states and Israel). Second is conditional peace, where one or both sides see the necessity of deterrent activities to avoid war (the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War). Third and lastly is the stable peace, in which neither side employs force or makes a threat of force in any of its disputes (the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1956 Suez Canal Crisis). As an ongoing and dynamic process, stable peace involves the process of achieving a continuum of an absence of war resulting from a balance of power, deterrence to conflict resolution, and consolidation of societal security. For the most part, stable peace is the one denoted by historicists and written about by romanticists.